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  • Les ondes électromagnétiques (Science physique)

      La propagation d'un champ magnétique et d'un champ électrique (l'un étant perpendiculaire à l'autre) en ligne droite à partir d'une seule constituée par une ou plusieurs charges en mouvement alternatif est appelé rayonnement électromagnétique. Dans le cadre de l'électromagnétisme, le champ électrique est un objet physique qui permet de mesurer en tout point de l'espace l'influence exercée à distance par les particules chargées électriquement. Le champ magnétique est une grandeur physique...

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Reported speech

In English, we have 2 ways of relating what somebody has said: We can use the direct speech and the indirect speech

Direct speech

Peter said: I the lost my book

Indirect speech (reported speech)

Peter said that he had lost his keys.


  • In direct speech, we repeat the exact words of the speaker. We put the words in inverted commas " " or « », a colon(:) is immediately before the remark or the utterance
  • In indirect speech, we do not use the exact words of the speaker, but we put the idea, we give the exact meaning of the remark


Joseph said train will be late. Joseph said that train would be late.
Paul explained: “I never eat meat ". Paul explained that he never ate meat.
Tom said: “Ann ate all the bananas". Tom said that Ann (she) had eaten all the bananas.
The teacher said: "I will see your father tomorrow". The teacher said that he would see my father the next day.

Some changes

To turn a statement from direct to reported speech, the verb changes as follows, if the introductory verb is the past tense. Future changes to conditional
The present →  past tense
the past tense → past perfect
the present perfect → past perfect
Future → conditional


The colon (:) changes to "that".
Mary said: I have done my homework
Mary said that she had done her homework.
The pronouns and the possessive adjectives change from the first person to the 3rd person. I → he (she), my → his (her)
NB: If the speaker is reporting his own words there is no change.
I said: "I like my new dress"
I said that I liked my new dress.

Mary said : "I want to seat on the balcony
Mary said that she wanted to seat on the balcony

Mary said "Paul, I want to seat on the balcony"
Mary told Paul that she wanted to seat on the balcony.

Talo = It's my birthday today
Talo said that it was his birthday that day.

Talo to Bella = It is my birthday
Talo told Bella that it was his birthday that day.

The oracle: "wooden walls will protect the city"
The oracle said that wooden walls would protect the city.

The oracle to Athenians: "wooden walls will protect the city"
The oracle told Athenians that wooden walls would protect the city.

Adverbs of time and adverbial phrases

The teacher said : "I will see your father tomorrow"
The teacher said that he would see (my/her) father the next day

today → that day
yesterday → the day before
the day before yesterday → two day before
tomorrow → the next day/the following day
the after tomorrow → in two days time
Next week / next year →the following week / year
last day / last week →the pronouns day / year
a year ago →a year before / the previous year
here →there
this → that

Some verbs that can be used as introductory verb: asked, told, begged, advised, inquired, explained.